India’s Independence Day is celebrated on 15 August to commemorate its independence from British rule and its birth as a sovereign nation on that day in 1947. [more on wiki]
Our story begins long, long ago. In fact, more than 210 million years ago. (One million = 10,00,000). It was a time when giant dinosaurs ruled the earth. They were the undisputed kings of the planet for 100 million years. So long was their reign, that we human beings find it more convenient to count their time period in Eras, rather than in years or even million years. At that time in the past, the earth itself did not resemble the planet as we know it now. There existed a huge land mass, called Pangaea (or as some scientists call it Gondwanaland), that lay across the sphere, running from the north pole to south pole, of our infant earth.
The temperatures then were generally warmer — allowing plants and animals to live at much higher northern and southern latitudes. Therefore, dinosaurs roamed across the land mass, and adapted themselves to live even in the regions near the extreme poles.
About 210 million years ago, the giant continent Pangaea, began to disintegrate and drift apart. Where the lands separated, the waters of the ocean rushed in to form new seas. Over the next 120 million years, the massive pieces of Pangaea drifted across the oceans of the earth, taking up new positions.
North America and Europe, which had been a single land mass drifted apart, and the Atlantic Ocean spread out between then. The African Continent floated lazily for millions of years, before it joined up with Asia. Gradually, the world began to assume more of its modern-day appearance. [see more]
Gondwana (pronounced /ɡɒndˈwɑːnə/), originally Gondwanaland, is the name given to a southern precursor supercontinent. Its final geological suturing occurred between ca. 570 and 510 million years ago (Ma), joining East Gondwana to West Gondwana. It later separated from Laurasia 180-200 million years ago during the breakup of the Pangaea supercontinent that existed about 500 to 200 Ma into two large segments, nearly equal in area. While the corresponding northern-hemisphere continent Laurasia moved further north, Gondwana drifted south. It included most of the landmasses in today’s southern hemisphere, including Antarctica, South America, Africa, Madagascar, Australia-New Guinea, and New Zealand, as well as Arabia and the Indian subcontinent, which have now moved entirely into the Northern Hemisphere.
The continent of Gondwana was named by Austrian scientist, Eduard Suess, after the Gondwana region of central northern India (from Sanskrit gondavana “forest of the Gonds“), from which the Gondwana sedimentary sequences (Permian-Triassic) are also described.
The adjective “Gondwanan” is in common use in biogeography when referring to patterns of distribution of living organisms, typically when the organisms are restricted to two or more of the now-discontinuous regions that were once part of Gondwana, including the Antarctic flora. For example, the Proteaceae, a family of plants that is known only from southern South America, South Africa, and Australia are considered to have a “Gondwanan distribution”. This pattern is often considered to indicate an archaic, or relict, lineage. [wikipedia]
The Indian subcontinent, also Indian Subcontinent and other terms, is a region of the Asian (and, in turn, the Eurasian) continent on the Indian tectonic plate south of the Himalayas, forming a land mass which extends southward into the Indian Ocean.
In the beginning, the land that was to become India, lay almost at the South Pole of the earth, tucked in between two other land masses, that would eventually become Antarctica and Australia.
When the land mass broke up in the southern regions, Australia was set adrift. So, too, was the triangular plate, that would eventually become India. This plate of land floated steadily north, towards the mass of land that would one day become Asia.
While the continents were adrift, the dinosaurs achieved the peak of their reign. They had ruled the earth for million years. But quite abruptly (in terms of the planet’s life span) they disappeared from the face of the earth, never to be seen again.
The race of creatures that benefited the most from the disappearance of these terrible dinosaurs, was a group of tiny rat-like creatures — the precursors of mammals and man.
As the floating Indian sub-continent approached Asia, the sea was forced out. Finally, about 50 million years ago, the two vast land masses met head on. As India rammed into Asia, there were terrible upheavals on both sides.
On the Asian side, the land was pushed upwards, creating the high lands of Tibet. On the Indian side, two giant slabs of rock were pushed up into the sky. These were to become the mighty Himalayas — the highest mountains in the world. The force of collision of the floating land mass was so great that for millions of years, the land was in upheaval. During this time, the Himalayas were shaped. The rocks rose upwards and then tumbled aside — again and again — as fresh seismic activity shook the newly formed regions.
Finally, the force of collision of the floating land mass was exhausted. The Himalayas, as we now know them, had been formed. The remnants of the pre-historic oceans, that had closed in, were lifted thousands of feet high into the mountains and became the two great watersheds of the region.
Flowing to the east were the Ganges and the Brahmaputra. Flowing to the west were the five rivers, which formed the basin of the Indus Valleys. Along these river valleys, millions of years later, would grow some of the world’s greatest civilizations.
The sub-continent of India had been born!
The India or Indian Plate is a tectonic plate that was originally a part of the ancient continent of Gondwanaland from which it split off, eventually becoming a major plate. About 50 to 55 million years ago, it fused with the adjacent Australian Plate. It is today part of the major Indo-Australian Plate, and includes the subcontinent of India and a portion of the basin under the Indian Ocean.
In the late Cretaceous Period about 90 million years ago, subsequent to the splitting off from Gondwanaland of conjoined Madagascar and India, the India Plate split from Madagascar. It began moving north, at about 20 cm/yr (8 in/yr) , and began colliding with Asia between 50 and 55 million years ago, in the Eocene epoch of the Cenozoic Era. During this time, the India Plate covered a distance of 2,000 to 3,000 km (1,200 to 1,900 mi), and moved faster than any other known plate. In 2007, German geologists determined that the reason the India Plate moved so quickly is that it is only half as thick as the other plates which formerly constituted Gondwanaland.
The collision with the Eurasian Plate along the boundary between India and Nepal formed the orogenic belt that created the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalaya Mountains, as sediment bunched up like earth before a plow.
The India Plate is currently moving northeast at 5 cm/yr (2 in/yr), while the Eurasian Plate is moving north at only 2 cm/yr (0.8 in/yr). This is causing the Eurasian Plate to deform, and the India Plate to compress at a rate of 4 mm/yr (0.15 in/yr).
It undergo lots of threats and invasions mean while till 1947. When we look back – deceptions, wars, forcible religion shifts, bribes, destruction of Heritage and culture, Intellectual piracy, Physical book information grabbing, etc. were went on. Even though we got physical Independence in 1947, psychologically we at slavery even today. The Japan who got destroyed in second world war got reconstructed but the in-dependent INDIA looking forward someone to come and lift us.
As an Ayurveda Practitioner we have to make a commitment to tell about our science and heritage at least for one in a day. JAI HIND