Tag Archives: World Day

World Radiography Day

World Radiography Day

  • 8 November

Today is World Radiography Day and is encouraging all students and radiographers – diagnostic and therapeutic – to plan events. Open days, competitions, exhibitions, school visits and ideas to raise awareness of the profession are held by departments and higher educational institutions.

Radiography is the use of X-rays to view a cross sectional area of a non uniformly composed material such as the human body. By utilizing the physical properties of the ray an image can be developed displaying clearly, areas of different density and composition.

A heterogeneous beam of X-rays is produced by an X-ray generator and is projected toward an object. According to the density and composition of the different areas of the object a proportion of X-rays are absorbed by the object. The X-rays that pass through are then captured behind the object by a detector (film sensitive to X-rays or a digital detector) which gives a 2D representation of all the structures superimposed on each other. In tomography, the X-ray source and detector move to blur out structures not in the focal plane. Computed tomography (CT scanning) is different to plain film tomography in that computer assisted reconstruction is used to generate a 3D representation of the scanned object/patient.

Radiography started in 1895 with the discovery of X-rays, also referred to as Röntgen rays after Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen who first described their properties in rigorous detail. These previously unknown rays (hence the X) were found to be a type of electromagnetic radiation. It wasn’t long before X-rays were used in various applications, from helping to fit shoes, to the medical uses that have persisted. X-rays were put to diagnostic use very early, before the dangers of ionizing radiation were discovered. Indeed, Marie Curie pushed for radiography to be used to treat wounded soldiers in World War I. Initially, many kinds of staff conducted radiography in hospitals, including physicists, photographers, doctors, nurses, and engineers. The medical specialty of radiology grew up over many years around the new technology. When new diagnostic tests were developed, it was natural for the radiographers to be trained in and to adopt this new technology. Radiographers now often do fluoroscopy, computed tomography, mammography, ultrasound, nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance imaging as well. Although a nonspecialist dictionary might define radiography quite narrowly as “taking X-ray images”, this has long been only part of the work of “X-ray departments”, radiographers, and radiologists. Initially, radiographs were known as roentgenograms. [Read more]

World Ayurveda Day

World Ayurveda Day (Aswiyuja Bahula Trayodashi)

Dhanvantari (Sanskrit: धन्वंतरी; also Dhanvanthari), the God of Ayurveda emerged on Aswiyuja Bahula Trayodashi of Indian Lunar calendar. The star of the day is Hasta in 2010 World Ayurveda Day (starts at 7 PM of 3rd November till 3:58 PM of 4th November 2010). Dhanvantari is considered as an avatar of Vishnu from the Hindu tradition. Dhanvantari appears in the Vedas and Puranas as the physician of the gods, and the God of Ayurvedic medicine. It is common practice in Hinduism for worshipers to pray to Dhanvantari seeking his blessings for sound health for themselves and/or others. The Ayurveda Gods of Heath are many viz. Aswins (The star on full moon day of Aswiyuj is Ashwin), Dhanvantari (Dhanam means – Treasure; the treasures are many types and here in this context is Health), Shiva (es is male and eva is female – a hermaphrodite deity; a conjugational health of all mankind), Indra (), etc. each and every word of Indian philosophy and medicine is meaningful. The Hasta in Aswin star month is susceptible for the ill health, so the preventive celebration. In World Ayurveda Day, a celebration of Arogya Dhanvantari – the emergence of health treasure in their (own) hands and the rest those who are with health and wealth purchase Gold as symbolic to be happy and healthy. Laxmi pooja is performed when the tithi (Trayodashi) falls in evening. In 2010 Laxmi pooja is on 3rd November and Dhanvantari celebration is on 4t November. The next day of Dhanvantari celebration is Naraka-Chaturdashi (), where the killing of the bad organisms starts and continues till Deepaval (deepa – lamp and avali – is line = the rows of lamps) with happiness of detoxifying and infection free atmosphere celebrates “Deepavali”. May all healthy! Celebrate Deepavali (Diwali)!

World Vegan Day

1st November

World Vegan Day is an annual event celebrated on 1 November, by vegans around the world. The Day was established in 1994 by Louise Wallis, then President & Chair of the The Vegan Society UK. 2010 marks the 66th anniversary of the term ‘vegan’ (and thus the verbally clarified concept of ‘veganism’ and of the Vegan Society).

Other Global ‘Vegetarian Days’

If you are not already vegan then start today. It’s easy. It’s better for your health and for the planet. But most importantly, ethical veganism represents your commitment to justice, the abolition of animal exploitation, and nonviolence.

World Polio Day

24th October

World Polio Day

Read polio in detail at Ayurveda Online India

links :: UNICEF :: WHO

Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an acute viral infectious disease spread from person to person, primarily via the fecal-oral route.[1] The term derives from the Greek poliós (πολιός), meaning “grey”, myelós (µυελός), referring to the “spinal cord“, and the suffix -itis, which denotes inflammation.[2]

Although around 90% of polio infections cause no symptoms at all, affected individuals can exhibit a range of symptoms if the virus enters the blood stream.[3] In about 1% of cases the virus enters the central nervous system, preferentially infecting and destroying motor neurons, leading to muscle weakness and acute flaccid paralysis. Different types of paralysis may occur, depending on the nerves involved. Spinal polio is the most common form, characterized by asymmetric paralysis that most often involves the legs. Bulbar polio leads to weakness of muscles innervated by cranial nerves. Bulbospinal polio is a combination of bulbar and spinal paralysis.[4]

Poliomyelitis was first recognized as a distinct condition by Jakob Heine in 1840.[5] Its causative agent, poliovirus, was identified in 1908 by Karl Landsteiner.[5] Although major polio epidemics were unknown before the late 19th century, polio was one of the most dreaded childhood diseases of the 20th century. Polio epidemics have crippled thousands of people, mostly young children; the disease has caused paralysis and death for much of human history. Polio had existed for thousands of years quietly as an endemic pathogen until the 1880s, when major epidemics began to occur in Europe; soon after, widespread epidemics appeared in the United States.[6]

By 1910, much of the world experienced a dramatic increase in polio cases and frequent epidemics became regular events, primarily in cities during the summer months. These epidemics—which left thousands of children and adults paralyzed—provided the impetus for a “Great Race” towards the development of a vaccine. Developed in the 1950s, polio vaccines are credited with reducing the global number of polio cases per year from many hundreds of thousands to around a thousand.[7] Enhanced vaccination efforts led by the World Health Organization, UNICEF, and Rotary International could result in global eradication of the disease.[8]

Key facts

  • Polio (poliomyelitis) mainly affects children under five years of age.
  • One in 200 infections leads to irreversible paralysis (usually in the legs). Among those paralysed, 5% to 10% die when their breathing muscles become immobilized.
  • Polio cases have decreased by over 99% since 1988, from an estimated 350 000 cases then, to 1997 reported cases in 2006. The reduction is the result of the global effort to eradicate the disease.
  • In 2008, only four countries in the world remain polio-endemic, down from more than 125 in 1988. The remaining countries are Afghanistan, India, Nigeria and Pakistan.
  • Persistent pockets of polio transmission in northern India, northern Nigeria and the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan are the current focus of the polio eradication initiative.
  • As long as a single child remains infected, children in all countries are at risk of contracting polio. Between 2003 and 2005, 25 previously polio-free countries were re-infected due to imports of the virus.
  • In most countries, the global effort has expanded capacities to tackle other infectious diseases by building effective surveillance and immunization systems. Knowledge of the poliovirus has expanded with aggressive research carried out under the eradication effort.
  • Success for the effort hinges on closing a substantial funding gap to finance next steps of the global eradication initiative.
  • At the height of the polio epidemic in 1952, nearly 60,000 cases with more than 3,000 deaths were reported in the United States alone. However, with widespread vaccination, wild-type polio, or polio occurring through natural infection, was eliminated from the United States by 1979 and the Western hemisphere by 1991.

Signs and Symptoms

Polio is a viral illness that, in about 95% of cases, actually produces no symptoms at all (called asymptomatic polio). In the 4% to 8% of cases in which there are symptoms (called symptomatic polio), the illness appears in three forms:

  • a mild form called abortive polio (most people with this form of polio may not even suspect they have it because their sickness is limited to mild flu-like symptoms such as mild upper respiratory infection, diarrhea, fever, sore throat, and a general feeling of being ill)
  • a more serious form associated with aseptic meningitis called nonparalytic polio (1% to 5% show neurological symptoms such as sensitivity to light and neck stiffness)
  • a severe, debilitating form called paralytic polio (this occurs in 0.1% to 2% of cases)

Two polio vaccines are used throughout the world to combat poliomyelitis (or polio). The first was developed by Jonas Salk and first tested in 1952. Announced to the world by Salk on April 12, 1955, it consists of an injected dose of inactivated (dead) poliovirus. An oral vaccine was developed by Albert Sabin using attenuated poliovirus. Human trials of Sabin’s vaccine began in 1957 and it was licensed in 1962.[1] Because there is no long term carrier state for poliovirus in immunocompetent individuals, polioviruses have no non-primate reservoir in nature, and survival of the virus in the environment for an extended period of time appears to be remote. Therefore, interruption of person to person transmission of the virus by vaccination is the critical step in global polio eradication.[2] The two vaccines have eradicated polio from most countries in the world,[3][4] and reduced the worldwide incidence from an estimated 350,000 cases in 1988 to 1,652 cases in 2007.[5][6][7] [wikipedia]

Global caseload

Polio cases have decreased by over 99% since 1988, from an estimated 350 000 cases in more than 125 endemic countries then, to 1997 reported cases in 2006. In 2008, only parts of four countries in the world remain endemic for the disease – the smallest geographic area in history.

The head of the World Health Organization’s polio eradication team has warned that India could reinfect the rest of the world with polio if a new outbreak of the disease is not rapidly brought under control. Officials are concerned by an “alarming” rise in the number of polio cases in the impoverished northern state of Uttar Pradesh, which has always been a troublesome epicenter of the disease. Because of the unexpected surge in cases there – with 121 cases recorded by the end of July, up from 12 in the same period last year – India is now the only country in the world where the incidence of polio is growing.

Polio remains significant among worldwide infectious disease threats

IDSA 48th Annual Meeting at VANCOUVER — A recent outbreak in Tajikistan has highlighted the fact that challenges remain for the polio eradication effort, in addition to other initiatives, according to findings presented at the 48th Annual Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. “Of course polio is present in south Asia and central and west Africa, but the big news in polio is the outbreak from Tajikistan to other countries from the former Soviet Union,” he said in a presentation. Dowell noted that both the number of cases and number of countries in which polio can be found are decreasing, but that the battle is far from over. [more reading]

Mutated virus confirms polio vaccine fears

A polio virus eradicated from India a decade ago has surfaced in a new avatar for a second consecutive year, paralysing three children and confirming long-standing fears about rare risks associated with the oral polio vaccine.

India has recorded a sharp drop in wild polio cases this year — 39 so far in contrast to 741 in 2009 — but one child in Tamil Nadu, and two children in Uttar Pradesh have been paralysed by vaccine-derived polio virus (VDPV) this year.

The VDPVs are mutated versions of the weakened, but live polio viruses used in the oral polio vaccine that have regained the ability to cause paralysis in humans. Such VDPVs first surfaced in India in 2009 — 17 cases in Uttar Pradesh, 3 in Bihar, and 1 in Assam.

Over the past decade, VDPVs have turned up in China, Egypt, Hispaniola, Finland, Indonesia, Myanmar and Pakistan. – “As long as oral polio vaccine continues to be used anywhere in the world, there will be a continued threat of VDPV and hence of outbreaks of (polio),” Philip Minor, a virologist at the National Institute for Biological Standards and Control in the UK, wrote last year in the journal Vaccine.  [more reading]

Join hands to eradicate Polio Globally

Iodine Problem – Focus

National Iodine Deficiency Disorder Day

23rd October

National Iodine Deficiency Disorder Day

Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) continues to pose a serious threat to the health, well being, economic productivity and advancement of several hundred million people worldwide.

People living in iodine deficient environment suffer from reduced mental and physical abilities, cretinism, mental retardation, deaf-mutism, squint, still-birth, abortion, goitre of all ages, neuro-motor defects, etc. Even when born normal, young children whose diets are low in iodine have their lives trapped in mental dullness and apathy. Commonly we see Goiter (enlargement of the thyroid gland), Fatigue, Weakness, Depression and Weight gain.

IDD preys upon poor, pregnant women and preschool children, posing serious public health problems in more than hundred developing countries. Iodine deficiency was once considered a minor problem, causing goiter, it is now known that it affects developing brain much deadlier and thereby, constituting a threat to the social and economic development of many countries.

Hypothyroidism is also possible as iodine levels in the body fall, since iodine is necessary to make thyroid hormones. Symptoms of hypothyroidism may include feeling cold, tiring easily, dry skin, constipation, forgetfulness and depression.

Iodine deficiency disorder during pregnancy shows up in children as mental retardation and growth, hearing, and speech problems. Mild iodine deficiency during pregnancy is more common in the U.S., and has been linked with low intelligence in children. [read more]

Concentrated food sources of iodine include sea vegetables, yogurt, cow’s milk, eggs, strawberries and mozzarella cheese. Fish and shellfish can also be concentrated sources of iodine. [links]

Food Sources of Iodine:

  • Asparagus
  • Dulse
  • Garlic
  • Kelp
  • Lima beans
  • Mushrooms
  • Seafood
  • Sea salt and fortified salt
  • Seaweed
  • Sesame seeds
  • Soybeans
  • Spinach
  • Summer squash
  • Swiss chard
  • Turnip greens

Other Sources of Iodine and Brand Names:

  • Prolamine Iodine- Standard Process Labs
  • Iodomere
  • Trace Minerals B-12
  • Cataplex F (Tablets)
  • Lugol’s iodine
  • Tincture of Iodine (Methiochrome)
  • White iodine
  • List of some of the supplements available to you:

Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) affects a large number of population living in all the continents of our planet. Iodine is an essential micronutrient which is required at 100-150 micrograms daily for normal human growth and development. There is an evidence of wide-spread distribution of environmental iodine deficiency not only in the Himalayan region but also in plains, riverine areas and even the coastal regions. Iodine deficiency starts its impact from development of foetus to all ages of human beings.

Iodine deficiency thus directly affects the “Human Resource Development” and which in turn greatly affects the human productivity as well as country’s development. 4.10.2. Magnitude of the Problem: About 200 million people are at the risk of IDD in our country. The survey conducted by the Central & State Health Directorates, ICMR and medical Institutes have clearly demonstrated that not even a single State/UT is free from the problem of Iodine Deficiency Disorders. It is estimated that 71 million populations are suffering from goitre and other iodine deficiency disorders. Samples surveys have been conducted in 25 States and 4 Union – Territories of the country which revealed that out of 275 districts surveyed so far IDD is a major public health problem in 235 districts where prevalence is more than 10 per cent. [more]

The Iodine Controversy

The New England Journal of Medicine published new research from China that looks at the relationship between iodine intake and thyroid disease. Reporting in the June 29, 2006 issue, the researchers concluded that “more than adequate or excessive iodine intake may lead to hypothyroidism and autoimmune thyroiditis.”

These findings, along with an accompanying editorial by Dr. Robert Utiger, which says that “the small risks of chronic iodine excess are outweighed by the substantial hazards of iodine deficiency,” add to the growing controversy over iodine, in particular, the iodization of salt, and iodine supplementation.

According to the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (INCCIDD): “Iodine deficiency is the single most common cause of preventable mental retardation and brain damage in the world. It also decreases child survival, causes goiters, and impairs growth and development. Iodine deficiency disorders in pregnant women causes miscarriages, stillbirths, and other complications. Children with IDD can grow up stunted, apathetic, mentally retarded, and incapable of normal movements, speech, or hearing.”

Iodine Excess

On the other side of the controversy is the recognition that excessive iodine can trigger autoimmune thyroid disease and hypothyroidism.

According to animal studies, high iodine intake can initiate and worsen infiltration of the thyroid by lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are white blood cells that accumulate due to chronic injury or irritation. In addition, large amounts of iodine block the thyroid’s ability to make hormone.

The researchers concluded: … although iodine supplementation should be implemented to prevent and treat iodine-deficiency disorders, supplementation should be maintained at a safe level. Levels that are more than adequate (median urinary iodine excretion, 200 to 299 µg per liter) or excessive (median urinary iodine excretion, >300 µg per liter) do not appear to be safe, especially for susceptible populations with either potential autoimmune thyroid diseases or iodine deficiency. Supplementation programs should be tailored to the particular region. No iodine supplementation should be provided for regions in which iodine intake is sufficient, whereas salt in regions in which iodine intake is deficient should be supplemented with iodine according to the degree of iodine deficiency.

An Important Note: The researchers were defining overt hypothyroidism as a TSH above 4.8, with elevated Free T4 levels. Subclinical hypothyroidism was defined as a TSH above 4.8, with normal range Free T4 levels. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, along with the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry, recommended in late 2002/early 2003 that the TSH normal range be narrowed substantially to .3 to 3.0. So the point at which someone would be considered overtly hypothyroid might be different, based on these new guidelines.

Do You Need Iodine?

Many decades ago, iodization of salt was voluntarily instituted in the U.S. and other industrialized countries as a means to counteract iodine deficiency. In these areas with iodized salt, iodine deficiency disorders were all but eliminated, and most Americans do have sufficient iodine.

During the past two decades, however, reductions in salt intake for health reasons, reduced use of iodized salt in processed foods, and the fact that iodization is not mandatory in the U.S. (even then, some 70% of table salt is iodized) have resulted in a cutback in iodine intake even in countries like the U.S. So after a period where iodine deficiency in the U.S. had been all but eliminated, it is now on a slow by steady upward rise.

The greatest concern is in pregnancy women. In fact, the rate of pregnant women with iodine deficiency has increased in the U.S. over the past 20 years Utiger, from just 1 percent in the 1970s to 7 percent in 2002. These women and their babies face the greatest risks from insufficient iodine in their diet.

Some experts recommend that iodine supplementation be standard during pre-conception and pregnancy. The recommended dietary allowance for iodine is 200 mg/day during pregnancy and 75 mg/day while breastfeeding.

For the rest of us, the answer for optimum thyroid health is, therefore, to get enough — but not too much — iodine. You might be deficient in iodine if you have, for health reasons, cut iodized salt out of your diet, or switched to non-iodized sea salt.

So, do you need supplemental iodine? How can you tell for sure if you are getting enough iodine? It’s almost impossible to gauge on your own. You can do an very rough estimate, however, based on the following questions:

  • Do you use iodized salt?
  • How much salt do you eat daily?
  • Do you take a vitamin or supplement with iodine? (How much iodine is in the supplement?)
  • Do you eat, meat, dairy products or seafood regularly?

Some alternative, holistic and herbal practitioners are almost knee-jerk in their insistence that anyone with a thyroid problem requires iodine supplementation (either liquid iodine, or an herb that contains iodine, such as kelp or bladderwrack). This can aggravate symptoms and worse thyroid problems in some people.

But, unless you are planning to get pregnant, are currently pregnant or you’re breastfeeding, you’ll want to be very careful about taking iodine unless you and your practitioner have some very strong evidence that you are deficient. If your practitioner recommends iodine supplementation as a thyroid treatment, you may wish to ask for a more specific test that can measure iodine levels — the “urinary excretion” test. This test which evaluates the iodine excreted in the urine, and gives an indirect but fairly accurate assessment of iodine levels, and can document deficiency.

Also, watch out for the so-called “thyroid support” vitamin and supplement formulas, including the heavily marketed and promoted Alvidar. Most, like Alvidar, include substantial amounts of iodine, and if you are not iodine-deficient, they can end up having the unintended and opposite effect of actually making your symptoms worse, and aggravating your thyroid condition. [source]

FAQs about Iodine Nutrition

1. What is iodine? – Iodine is a chemical element (as are oxygen, hydrogen, and iron). It occurs in a variety of chemical forms, the most important being: iodide (I-); iodate (IO3-), and elemental iodine (I2). It is present in fairly constant amounts in seawater but its distribution over land and fresh water is uneven. Deficiency is especially associated with high new mountains (e.g., Himalayas, Andes, Alps) and areas of frequent flooding, but many other areas are also deficient (e.g., Central Africa, Central Asia, much of Europe).

2. What does iodine do? – Iodine is an essential part of the chemical structure of thyroid hormones. The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland in the front part of the neck. It makes two hormones (thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)). The thyroid hormones are released into the bloodstream and carried by it to target organs, particularly the liver, kidneys, muscles, heart, and developing brain.

3. Why do we need iodine? – Because thyroid hormones are essential to life. The thyroid hormones act in target organs by influencing many different chemical reactions, usually involving manufacture of key proteins. The body must have proper levels of thyroid hormone to work well.

4. How much iodine should we get? – Several international groups have made recommendations, which are fairly similar. ICCIDD, WHO, and UNICEF recommend the following daily amounts: age 0-7 years, 90 micrograms (mcg); age 7-12 years, 120 mcg; older than 12 years, 150 mcg; and pregnant and lactating women, 200 mcg.

A recent report by the Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, USA, offers similar recommendations. It calculates an “Estimated Average Requirement” and from that derives an RDA (Recommended Daily Allowance). However, occasionally sufficient data are not available and instead an “Adequate Intake” is calculated, which may be set higher than the RDA would be, for safety. The recommendations for daily intake are as follows: the AI for infants 0-6 months is 110 mcg iodine and 7-12 months, 130 mcg; the RDA’s are: 1-8 years old, 90 mcg; 9-13 years, 120 mcg; 14 and older, 150 mcg; pregnancy, 220 mcg; lactation, 290 mcg. The Food and Nutrition Board also sets the tolerable upper limits of the daily iodine intake as 1.1 mg (1100 mcg) for adults, with proportionately lower levels for younger age groups.

5. Where do we get iodine from? – Most of it comes from what we eat and drink. Seafood is usually a good source because the ocean contains considerable iodine. Freshwater fish reflect the iodine content of the water where they swim, which may be deficient. Other foods vary tremendously in iodine content, depending on their source and what may have been added. Plants grown in iodine-deficient soil do not have much iodine, nor do meat or other products from animals fed on iodine-deficient plants. Because the breast concentrates iodine, dairy products are usually a good source, but only if the cows get enough iodine.

Iodized salt is a special case. With only a few isolated exceptions, edible salt (sodium chloride) does not naturally contain iodine. Iodine is added deliberately as one of the most efficient ways of improving iodine nutrition. The amount added varies widely in different regions. In Canada and the United States, iodized salt contains 100 ppm (parts per million, same as 100 mcg/gram) as potassium iodide (equals 77 ppm as iodide), so two grams of salt contains approximately the daily recommended amount of 150 mcg iodine. In the United States, you can buy salt that is either iodized or not iodized, and the price is the same; about 50% of all the salt sold in the U.S. is iodized. In Canada, all table salt is iodized. Most other countries add from 10 to 40 mcg iodine per gram of salt (10-40 ppm). Daily salt intake varies greatly in different parts of the world, ranging from two to five grams in many western countries to 20 grams in some others. An average figure may be 10 grams per day.

These statements apply only to table salt. Most edible salt is added at cooking. If present as potassium iodate, as in most countries, little iodine is lost during cooking, depending on how pure the salt is. Many people get most of their salt from processed foods, especially in developed countries, and commercial practices vary as to whether these contain iodine or not.

Iodine exposure can come from many other sources. Certain food colorings (e.g., erythrosine) contain iodine, although it is only partially bioavailable. Some iodine from skin disinfectants, such as povidone iodine, is absorbed and reaches the bloodstream. Certain health foods, such as some types of kelp, contain large amounts of iodine. Other sources are dyes used for contrast in X-ray procedures and medicines, such as Amiodarone (used for heart failure and abnormal heart rhythm). People also get iodine from its use in farm animals, for cleansing udders or as part of iodine-containing medicines. Iodate has been used as a bread stabilizer in commercial baking, although this practice is less common now. Many other environmental sources of iodine exist; most of them are unrecognized or unpublicized.

6. What happens if we don’t get enough iodine? – The most damaging consequences are on fetal and infant development. Maternal iodine deficiency causes miscarriages, other pregnancy complications, and infertility. Thyroid hormones, and therefore iodine, are essential for normal development of the brain. If the fetus or newborn is not exposed to enough thyroid hormone, it may have permanent mental retardation, even if it survives. Low birth weights and decreased child survival also result from iodine deficiency. Cretinism is a very severe degree of this brain damage; it includes permanent dense mental retardation, and varying degrees of additional developmental defects such as deafmutism, short stature, spasticity, and other neuromuscular abnormalities.

The most visible consequence of iodine deficiency is goiter. This word means “an enlarged thyroid.” The process begins as an adaptation in which the thyroid is more active in its attempts to make enough thyroid hormone for the body’s needs, despite the limited supply of raw material (iodine), much as a muscle gets bigger when it has to do more work. If this adaptation is successful and the iodine deficiency is not too severe, the person may escape with only an enlarged thyroid and no other apparent damage from the iodine deficiency. Older individuals with goiters may develop nodules (lumps) in their thyroids, and sometimes these can begin making too much thyroid hormone when suddenly exposed to iodine. This result occurs because these nodules are independent of usual controls; they make thyroid hormone at their own rate, and may over-produce it when given more iodine. Also, the nodular goiters in iodine deficiency have an increased rate of one type of thyroid cancer, called “follicular cancer.” Goiters can sometimes enlarge enough to produce compression of other neck structures and may need surgical removal for that reason.

In addition to these effects on the individual, iodine deficiency has adverse consequences for the community. The mental retardation can cover a wide range, from mild blunting of intellect to cretinism, and a large part of the population may have some intellectual impairment. The mean IQ of the deficient community is decreased by about 13.5 IQ points, according to one review. Individuals in these communities have lower educability and lower economic productivity, and the output of the whole community suffers. Dramatic improvement typically occurs after appropriate addition of iodine.

7. What happens if we get too much iodine? – Most people who have previously been iodine sufficient can safely tolerate fairly large amounts. As mentioned above, some individuals have thyroid nodules that escape the body’s usual controls, and they can start making too much thyroid hormone when their dietary iodine increases, to produce a condition called iodine-induced hyperthyroidism.

Iodine excess can also cause thyroid underactivity, because large amounts of iodine block the thyroid’s ability to make hormone. Individuals vary widely in their tolerance to iodine. Most people can handle large amounts satisfactorily, but there are exceptions. People with a tendency towards so-called autoimmune thyroid diseases, such as Graves’ disease or Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, or who have family members with these problems, may be more sensitive to iodine. In fact, high iodine intakes in a population are associated with an increased incidence of these autoimmune thyroid diseases. Also, high levels of iodine in the population may increase the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer, although this is not well established. Fortunately, papillary thyroid cancer is usually a mild form of cancer and rarely causes death.

Most people can tolerate at least 1 mg (1000 mcg) of iodine daily without adverse effects. People with underlying autoimmune thyroid disease or who have previously been iodine deficient, may tolerate less. Iodine excess is undesirable, but its consequences are not nearly so severe as those of iodine deficiency, because the latter affects human development and can produce permanent brain damage. Properly iodized salt will rarely add more than about 300 mcg iodine daily to the diet. Therefore, concern about iodine excess is not a reason to stop or avoid consumption of iodized salt.

8. How can we tell if we are getting the right amount of iodine? – Usually you as an individual won’t know how much iodine you are getting, particularly in countries like the United States, because iodine appears in commercial preparations without notice. You can make a rough calculation, based on (1) whether you use iodized salt; (2) how much salt you eat; (3) whether you take vitamins that contain iodine (many contain 150 mcg); and (4) whether you eat much meat, dairy products, or seafood.

For populations, a better way to learn the iodine intake is to measure the amount of iodine in representative urine samples. Most (more than 90%) of the iodine you ingest eventually comes out in the urine. Thus, the concentration of iodine in the urine, even in casual samples, is a good marker for iodine nutrition. Urine iodine concentration varies with fluid intake, so these ranges have limited use for casual samples from an individual, but they are good for assessing a population group, because individual variations tend to average out. A median urinary iodine concentration between 100 and 200 mcg/L is ideal. The following scale has been used by WHO/ICCIDD/UNICEF to relate iodine nutrition to urinary iodine concentration:

Median Urinary Iodine Concentration (mcg/L) Corresponding Approximate Iodine Intake (mcg/day) Iodine Nutrition
<20 <30 Severe deficiency
20-49 30-74 Moderate deficiency
50-99 75-149 Mild deficiency
100-199 150-299 Optimal
200-299 300-449 More than adequate
>299 >449 Possible exces

Routine laboratory tests of thyroid function are not as helpful as the urinary iodine concentration in assessing a population. The serum TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone or thyrotropin) is a test that is widely used clinically to assess thyroid function in individuals. TSH is released into the blood stream by the pituitary (an endocrine control gland at the base of the brain) in response to the amount of thyroid hormone in the blood stream. TSH tells the thyroid how hard to work. It bases this decision on how much thyroid hormone is present in the blood. When blood thyroid hormone is low, serum TSH increases and this can be used as a measure for inadequate thyroid hormone production. The serum TSH is the most widely used test for diagnosing thyroid disease in individuals. However, the serum TSH is less valuable in recognizing iodine deficiency, because it can increase but still remain within the normal range.

An exception is the blood TSH in newborns. Most developed countries have a system of newborn screening, either with the blood TSH or thyroxine, to recognize congenital hypothyroidism. About one out of 4,000 newborns has congenital deficiency of thyroid hormone production, usually because the thyroid is absent or fails to develop properly. This newborn screening is important because prompt treatment with thyroid hormone can prevent most or all of the consequences of inadequate thyroid hormone on brain development. Newborn TSH screening in areas with iodine deficiency shows an increase in the number of infants with transient hypothyroidism. Usually, this transient hypothyroidism corrects itself, and most of these infants do not show brain damage, but there remains a potential risk for this result, particularly if they continue iodine deficient during nursing.

Thyroid size is also a useful marker of iodine nutrition, because the iodine-deficient thyroid enlarges, as described above. One way to recognize goiter is to feel the thyroid and make an estimate of its size; this maneuver is quite simple but fairly crude and not very accurate in detecting slight enlargement, particularly in children. Use of an ultrasound machine is simple and can be done in remote settings; this measurement provides another good index of the degree of iodine deficiency.

9. How do we adjust iodine nutrition? – Salt is the best vehicle for adding iodine. Everyone needs salt, everyone eats it, usually in daily amounts, and the technology for iodization is straightforward. It can be added as potassium iodide or potassium iodate; the latter is preferred under conditions of humidity or impurities because of its greater stability. Most countries have regulations calling for 20-40 mcg iodine/g of salt (20-40 ppm); thus if an individual eats 5 g of salt iodized at 30 ppm, she gets 150 mcg iodine from this source alone. The amount to be added varies for particular populations, depending on the amount of salt ingested, the purity of the salt (and therefore, the amount lost between production and consumption), and the amount of iodine ingested from other sources. In some countries, when daily salt intake decreases, the health authorities raise the amount of iodine in the salt, to provide a constant adequate daily amount.

Another method for providing iodine to a community is through the administration of iodized vegetable oil. These preparations, e.g., Lipiodol, were developed as an X-ray contrast medium. One milliliter (one-fifth of a teaspoon) contains about 480 mg of iodine. A single administration orally provides adequate iodine for about a year, and if given by intramuscular injection, is satisfactory for about three years. Iodized oil is most useful when the iodine deficiency is severe, when immediate correction is important, and when iodized salt is not yet available.

Drinking water is another occasional vehicle for iodine nutrition. Some systems slowly release iodine from a porous basket (containing a concentrated iodine solution) into well water. Another approach adds an iodine solution to water in a well or flowing through a pipe. A simpler version merely adds a few drops of a concentrated solution manually to vessels containing drinking water in a school or home. If iodine (I2) is added, it can also sterilize the water; this property is useful because many regions with iodine deficiency also have contaminated food and water.

Occasionally, iodine is given as tablets of potassium iodide, from 100 to 300 mcg per day or about 1 mg per week. Some vitamin/mineral preparations for daily use contain 150 mcg iodine, the recommended amount.

Other vehicles like sugar, bread, and tea have been occasionally used for iodine delivery. However, the many advantages of iodized salt make it the overwhelming favorite for most countries.

10. What is being done internationally about iodine deficiency? – The International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD) came into existence in 1985 with the single purpose of achieving optimal iodine nutrition worldwide. It has worked closely with UNICEF and the World Health Organization towards this objective. These and other early efforts led to a pledge by the World Summit for Children, in 1990, to achieve the virtual elimination of iodine deficiency. A massive effort has taken place during the past decade. Key players have included governments and citizens in countries, the salt industry, UNICEF, WHO, ICCIDD, and the Micronutrient Initiative, with major funding from Kiwanis International, the World Bank, the aid programs of Canada, Australia, the Netherlands, and the United States, and many others. Universal salt iodization is the main strategy. Currently, about 70% of households worldwide consume iodized salt. Some countries with previously severe iodine deficiency now appear to be virtually sufficient; e.g., China, Nigeria, Congo, Iran, Peru, Ecuador, and Thailand. This success involves not only the implementation of iodized salt, but effective national programs, the development of national IDD coordinating groups, extensive education at all levels, and monitoring. The current emphasis is now on iodine nutrition in those parts of the world that are still lagging, particularly in Central Asia and Africa, and on maintaining the progress made in other countries.

11. How can countries maintain optimal iodine nutrition? – In areas with previous iodine deficiency, the key point is monitoring, both of iodine levels in people (by urinary iodine) and in salt. It is recommended that countries have regular monitoring by urinary iodine in representative subgroups of the population every several years, with mandatory publication of the information, and prompt corrective action when deviations occur. Regular quality control of the iodine levels in salt, when that is the vehicle, is also essential. Some part of the government – usually the Ministry of Health or a national coordinating body – needs to take responsibility and be provided adequate resources for the program. Everyone involved – citizens, government, salt producers, agencies, the health sector – needs to be aware, so an active education campaign is a key part of a successful program.

[India has the largest number of infants born without the protection of iodized salt.  This Q&A was prepared to answer consumer questions in India.]

Salt for Freedom